How To Make A Peltier Cooler: Top Full Step-By-Step Guide 2023

How To Make A Peltier Cooler Top Full Step By Step Guide 2023
  • Paul Kahan

A common question is how to make a Peltier cooler. It’s a popular topic that appears on most social networking sites.

Making a Peltier cooler can be very satisfying. It lets you keep food and drinks at the right temperature control switch to bring them everywhere.

The process of making a cooler takes a lot of time. Was it successful? Publican Anker makes it easy for you to be confused by these issues.

However, Publican Anker assures that all methods are based on real-life experiences. Publican Anker is here to help you succeed!

What is the Thermoelectric Effect?

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The thermoelectric effect, in short, is the conversion of a hot heatsink into electricity. You can split it into the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect, and the Thomson effect.

The Seebeck effect refers to the conversion of desired temperature differences into electricity. The Peltier effect refers to the conversion of electricity into temperature differences.

These effects are only possible with thermoelectric modules. These solid-state heat pumps can move heat from one end to another when a voltage is applied. They also generate electricity if one is hot side and cold.

To calculate the Thomson effect across different materials, you can use it.

Thermoelectric action is now more clear to us. Okay, let us zero in on the Peltier modules. These are going to be the meat and potatoes of the endeavor.

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What is a Peltier Module?

What is a Peltier Module

Peltier coolers, thermoelectric Peltier modules that use the Peltier effect at junctions of N-doped or P-doped semiconductors, are called Peltier module coolers.

They are more efficient as cooling or heating devices than they are at being generators (Seebeck Effect).

As our standard, we will use the TEC1-1276 Peltier module, a C-sized (standard) 6-amp cooler with 127 PN couple.

What You Will Need Before Making a Peltier Cooler

What You Will Need Before Making a Peltier Cooler

Before making a Peltier cooler, you will need the following materials:

  • Peltier module: This is the heart of the cooler, and it consists of two types of semiconductors sandwiched together, with wires attached to the ends.
  • Heat sinks: These are used to dissipate the heat generated by the Peltier module and are typically made of aluminum or copper.
  • Thermal paste: This improves the thermal conductivity between the Peltier module and the heat sinks, ensuring efficient heat transfer.
  • Power supply: You will need a power supply to drive the current through the Peltier module. Each module has its own specifications for the voltage and current it needs to function.
  • Insulation: You must insulate the sides and top of the Peltier module to prevent heat loss and ensure efficient cooling.
  • Wiring and connectors: You must connect the Peltier module to the power supply. You may also need to connect temperature sensors or fans to regulate the temperature and airflow.


  • Screwdriver
  • Drill (optional)
  • Saw (optional)
  • Sandpaper

How To Make a Peltier Cooler or Mini-fridge Using A Thermoelectric Module?

How To Make a Peltier Cooler or Mini-fridge Using A Thermoelectric Module

Step 1: Putting the Heatsinks and Peltier Together.

I used thermal paste from the heatsinks to sandwich the Peltier and bolted them together, ensuring that the Peltier was evenly distributed between them.

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A quick note: The printed side of the Peltier is the cold side once the polarity is established.

Step 2: Cutting an Opening on the Cooler Lid.

After marking out the shape of my heat sink, I cut the cooler’s lid. I shaved the burrs off the edges and cleaned up the debris with my vacuum.

Step 3: Bolting the Heat Exchanger to the Lid.

I attached the entire exchanger to the lid using 3-inch stainless steel bolts, washers, and nuts. After fitting the lid, I attached the fan to the cold side heatsink to circulate air.

Step 4: Putting the Electricals in Place.

I soldered the 12volt & 0volt wires to provide a reliable, low-impedance solution. I attached the temperature meter to the lid using black silicone adhesive. I attached the thermal sensor to the fins of the cold heatsink.

To provide a power supply, I used a 12-volt plug.

In less than half an hour, the ambient temperature drops to 28 degrees Celsius, and quick tests show that the inside temperature decreases to 9 degrees Celsius.

The heat pipe heatsink well cools a 65-watt Peltier module! This preliminary test was also documented with thermal images.

Making a Beefy Peltier Cooler

Step 5: Adding Thermal Insulation.

Many people don’t realize that silver-colored windshield sunscreen can be a great heatshield or insulator. I cut a piece of the stockpile, power supply, and silicone and stuck it to the lid.

Step 6: Fixing the Handle.

Because of the size of the hot side heatsink, I had to replace the handle with a strap. To complete my Peltier cooler, I used an old bag strap.

Step 7: Testing

It ran with no cooling, ambient temperature difference 29C. In half an hour, it dropped to 17C. This cooling performance is excellent.

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Peltier coolers are best for pre-chilled food as they cannot freeze food in the hot side of environments. Even though the cold heatsink is quite large, I don’t mind reducing storage volume due to how it works.

Interesting fact: At 9 volts, the cooler will become colder but take longer. This is because the heating losses in the Peltier are directly proportional to the current.

Step 8: Improvement!

I did not want to increase the cooling capacity by removing the inside fan. The temperature difference is amazing! Amazing!

This instructable was interesting. It cost 700TD, and I now have a cooler to hold groceries until I get to a homemade peltier mini fridge. There’s no need to buy stupid, clunky ice or clean up the mess.

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Are Thermoelectric Coolers Efficient?

Are Thermoelectric Coolers Efficient

Coefficient of performance (COP) is the ratio of heat extracted from the cold side of the device to the amount of electrical power input. It is used to quantify the efficiency of a thermoelectric cooler.

Thermoelectric coolers typically have COP values between 0.1 and 0.3, meaning they remove only a few tenths of a watt of heat from the cold side for every electrical power used.

In contrast, compressor-based refrigeration systems typically have COP values between 2 and 5, meaning they are much more efficient at removing heat from a cooling environment.

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Despite their lower efficiency, thermoelectric coolers have several advantages over traditional cooling methods.

They are convenient for applications requiring portability or limited space because of their small size, low weight, and lack of moving parts.

They are also quieter and more reliable than compressor-based systems, which can be important factors in certain environments.

As research into thermoelectric materials and designs continues, there is hope that future thermoelectric coolers will be more effective.

When assessing the effectiveness of a thermoelectric cooler, it is crucial to consider not just the cooler’s design and materials but also its intended use.

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How cold side can a Peltier cooler get?

A standard portable thermoelectric cooler’s Peltier plate consumes about 3-5 amps. It can withstand temperatures up to 40 degrees Fahrenheit below the ambient temperature control switch.

For example, if the cooler is outside on an 80-degree day, it will get 40 degrees.

Can Peltier freeze water?

1.5 hours. One liter of water can be frozen at 40C. Thermoelectric Modules (TEMs) that work on the Peltier effect can provide high cooling rates and operate on DC electric sources.

These items can freeze water without refrigerant and reduce the freezing time by up to 3 minutes.

Can a Peltier cool a room?

You can cook whatever you want with the Peltier thermoelectric cooling module. The standard off-the-shelf air-conditioner is not as economical as an R-134A compressor cycle.

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Why Peltier is not used in AC?

The majority of thermoelectric coolers will not cool electronic gadget below 50 degrees F. Thermoelectric coolers should not be used in areas that exceed 80 degrees Celsius.

The reason is that the Peltier device cannot produce a lot of heat flux and can only reduce the temperature by about 20 degrees.


You don’t have to learn everything, but you can still make your Peltier cooler if determined. This is a sign that your understanding is exceptional.

Publican Anker will use your experiences and suggestions to create more quality articles.

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